It is sad how much knowledge we have lost over the years. In addition to traditional skills like gardening, food preservation, and carpentry, we’ve forgotten about medicinal remedies – including ones that can be found in our backyards.
Luckily, some of these traditional medicines are making a comeback, including Lactuca virosa, aka wild lettuce.
What Is Wild Lettuce?
It is a plant that can grow 6 feet tall. It has yellow flowers and spiny leaves. The Latin name “Lactuca” means “milk juice” and refers to the milky substance (Lactucarium) that comes out of the plant when it is cut.
That milky substance contains the natural chemicals lactucin and lacttucopicrin. These are the substances that are responsible for its pain-killing properties.
Where Does It Grow?
It is indigenous to the Himalayan region of India.
It is found growing in the United States in areas like Washington State. I couldn’t find any information about when it was introduced to the USA. However, many foragers claim that Native Americans used it as a natural pain reliever and medicinal remedy.
You can also find the plant in Europe, particularly in the central and southern parts. In England, you can find it in the East and Southeast parts.
History of Wild Opium Lettuce
Wild lettuce has a long history of medical use. Its use goes back to ancient Egypt, and depictions of it were seen in hieroglyphics. Emperor Augustus built an altar to the plant during the Roman Empire after using it to recover from illness.
It is often called “opium lettuce” because it was used during the 19th century when opium couldn’t be obtained.
Don’t let the name “lettuce opium” put you off, though.
The plant is not addictive and does NOT cause the side effects of opiates, such as an upset stomach.
Identifying The Plant
Identification can be a bit tricky because it closely resembles dandelion (Taraxacum) and milk thistle (Lactuca serriola).
When young, wild lettuce has short leaves that grow in clusters. As it ages, it develops a thick stalk with long leaves coming off of it. The leaves are smooth and have a light green color. Sometimes the leaves have purple spots on them. The root is brown.
When you cut the stalk or leaves, you’ll see a white milky substance known as latex come out immediately.
The latex turns yellow and then brown as it dries and hardens.
Most of us are familiar with how dandelion looks in our yards. However, when dandelion gets older, you might mistake it for wild lettuce.
Here’s how to spot the difference:
- Height: Dandelion usually doesn’t grow taller than 1.5 feet. Wild lettuce grows up to 6 feet tall.
- Number of Flowers: Dandelions have just one flower. Wild lettuce has multiple flowers.
- Flower Size: Dandelion flowers are usually around 1.5 inches wide. Wild lettuce flowers are small at around ¼ inch wide.
- Stalk: Dandelion will not grow a thick stalk as it grows older. Wild lettuce will get a thick, almost woody stem.
Vs. Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola)
Here is where identification gets tricky. Its cousin, Lactuca Serriola, looks a lot like it, and their flowers are identical.
Since Lactuca Serriola is found more commonly, you might think you’ve got wild lettuce when it is really prickly lettuce.
Here’s how to spot the difference:
- Height: Wild lettuce grows taller than prickly lettuce.
- Stalk: Wild lettuce is thicker than prickly lettuce.
- Leaves: This is the best way to tell the difference between the plants. Wild lettuce has leaves that aren’t as divided and spread out more.
Check out these comparison pictures of Lactuca virosa (wild lettuce) vs. Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce).
Using Wild Lettuce for Pain Relief
The main benefit is that it is a powerful herbal pain reliever, hence why the plant is often called “opium lettuce.”
Recommended Reading: Natural Homemade Pain Killers
The components which provide pain relief are known as lactones. They act on the central nervous system to calm the nerves, which cause pain sensations.
Wild lettuce has been extensively studied and repeatedly shown to reduce pain. (1) The name “opium lettuce” is a misnomer. While the plant will relieve pain, don’t expect the hardcore sedative effects of opium. It is more comparable to a high dosage of ibuprofen. (2)
The good news is that it will relieve pain without causing the adverse effects of opium. You won’t get addicted or develop a tolerance to it.
Most of the scientific studies were for its pain-relieving properties. However, throughout history, wild lettuce has been used to treat a wide arrange of ailments:
Wild Lettuce can treat many illnesses:
- Urinary tract infections
- Menstrual pain
- Rheumatism\Aching joints
- ADHD and hyperactivity in children
- Insomnia\Sleep problems
- Kidney disorders
Harvesting The Plant
All plants contain the active medicinal components. However, these components are low in young plants. Thus, it is best to harvest when it is an adult, right after its flowering period.
It typically flowers between June and August, but this can vary depending on the climate.
To tell whether it is ready for harvesting, just cut the stalk. The milky sap should flow out readily. If it doesn’t, then the plant isn’t ready yet.
How to Prepare The Plant
The milky sap from the stem is the most potent part of the lettuce. Traditionally, wild lettuce was harvested by making cuts in the stalks, letting the sap ooze out, and then letting it dry. The dried sap would be collected.
This traditional harvesting method is very time-consuming and tedious. You might consider just eating the leaves fresh. They are very nutritious (though quite bitter). However, you won’t get a very concentrated dosage this way.
You are better off using one of the methods below. (5)
The pain-relieving components are soluble in water. Thus, one of the easiest ways to get the benefits is to make tea from it.
- Gather leaves.
- Dry the leaves (If using a dehydrator, ensure you use the low heat setting so you don’t destroy the active compounds).
- Grind the leaves.
- Mix 1-2 teaspoons of dried leaves with 1 cup of water.
- Let steep for 3-5 minutes: strain and drink.
- Repeat up to 3x per day.
Note that wild lettuce tea has a very bitter taste. Add some honey and lemon to make it taste better. You can also mix it with other types of tea to mask the taste.
If you don’t want to make your own, you can buy the leaf tea on Amazon.
Wild Lettuce Extract/Resin
Extracts are very easy to make, but you have to be careful that you don’t overheat the plant. The active components are sensitive to heat.
Read about the exact steps to make wild lettuce extract.
Tinctures are even easier to make than extracts and last for much longer. However, not everyone likes using tinctures because they require alcohol – not exactly something you want to give kids!
The amount of alcohol in tinctures is very low, though, and the small dosage means you don’t have to deal with the bad taste as much.
Read about how we made a wild lettuce tincture.
Buying Tincture Online
I’m all for the DIY approach to natural medicine. However, I understand if you’d rather just buy wild lettuce extract. It is easier, and you can be sure of the dosage/potency.
The plant can also be smoked. Just take some ground-up dried leaves and roll them into a cigarette.
If you want to avoid the adverse effects of smoking or suffer from asthma, it may be better to use a vaporizer.
Wild Lettuce Dosage
I found a lot of different info on the best dosage. It depends a lot on the potency of the plant you use, how you consume it, and your tolerance.
With natural remedies, it is often best to start with a small dosage and see how you react. Then you can increase the dose as necessary.
Here are some basic guidelines for pain relief:
- Tea: 1-2 teaspoons of dried wild lettuce seeped in 1 cup of water, 3x per day.
- Resin: Take about 1.5 grams of resin as needed.
- Smoking: Use approximately 0.25 grams of dried leaves.
- Tincture: Take 12-24 drops, 2-3x per day.
Where to Find Seeds
If you find lactuca virosa in the wild, you can harvest the seeds and plant them in your yard (possibly starting a medicinal garden).
The plant grows like a weed, so you should be able to grow it easily regardless of where you live. The flowering period is usually from June to August, and it turns to seed shortly after.
A more straightforward solution is to buy seeds. I’ve found this brand to be a reliable source, although they can be surprisingly tricky to germinate.
Potential Side Effects
It generally has very mild effects, especially when taken in appropriate dosages. In larger dosages, you might see some of these side effects:
- Vivid dreams
- Enhanced colors
- Loss of balance
- Distorted vision (8)
At some websites like this one, you’ll see warnings about the toxicity of wild lettuce: “In high doses can produce stupor, depress breathing and overdose can cause coma/death.”
This seems like a huge overstatement, though. There are very few recorded incidences of overdose. In this case study, for example, 8 patients presented with wild lettuce overdose. None of them experienced any long-term adverse effects. One of the patients lost consciousness. The study doesn’t say how much they consumed, only that it was a “great deal.”
The patients were treated by keeping them hydrated and using activated charcoal to help absorb the excess wild lettuce in their digestive tracts.
Wild lettuce is not a controlled substance under the FDA. It is entirely legal to grow, harvest, and use. You can readily buy it legally as well.