The Oh Crap! Guide to Off Grid Sewage and Waste Disposal

When you live off grid, you are also disconnecting yourself from the municipal sewage system.  Sewage is something that people don’t think much about but definitely not something you can take for granted when living off grid!

The same goes for when the grid goes down, such as it would during an EMP event. No more plumbing services would lead to a true SHTF situation!

When you think about it, modern toilets are really insane.  You poop and pee into a bowl which uses several gallons of perfectly good drinking water to flush the waste down a network of pipes.  When it finally reaches treatment plants, mass amounts of chemicals are used to sanitize the waste so it can be resent through the plumbing system.

Using an off-grid toilet doesn’t just free you from reliance on utilities, but also frees you from this madness that is the municipal treatment system.

Whether you are interested in living off grid or want to prepare for emergencies, here is what you need to know about your 3 long-term off-grid toilet options.

Option 1: Pit Latrine

pit latrine outhouse

The easiest solution for dealing with sewage is to dig a pit latrine or “outhouse.” You basically just dig a deep hole and put a floor slab over it with a hole for a squat or seat toilet.  Make a shelter around your latrine and you are good to go.

Of course, there are some additional factors that need to be considered to dig a latrine safely.   Firstly, you need to determine where to put your latrine.  It should always be downhill of your water source and never be built uphill of a well (including your neighbors’ wells).  This is especially important in areas that have fissured rocks (think limestone) as the sewage can be readily carried through cracks in the rock into the water source.

While this is the easiest sewage disposal method, not everyone is thrilled about the idea of going outside to go to the bathroom.  It might be okay for a few days of camping, but visiting the latrine during cold winter nights isn’t very fun!  Latrines can also bring about problems with flies, and your property might be too small to safely dig a latrine.

Latrine Guidelines:

  • Never build latrines uphill from a water source
  • Latrine pits should be at least 2 yards above the water table
  • The latrine pit should be above flood level
  • The latrine needs to be a safe distance away from water sources (about 30 yards but varies depending on the type of ground)
  • The latrine should be closed off when not in use to prevent flies (listen to your wife when she tells you to put the toilet seat down!)
  • The pit should be at least 5 feet deep and 4 feet wide
  • When the latrine pit is filled to the top ½ meter, it should be covered with earth

Just a quick note on latrine safety…  

When human waste is breaking down, methane gas can buildup.  Never smoke in a latrine or drop matches down the latrine.  It could cause an explosion!

You also don’t want to pour any household chemicals like bleach into the latrine because the chemicals can react with the waste.  To control odor and flies, you can instead put some lime, peat moss, or hay into the latrine.

Option 2: Compost Toilet

A more modern off-grid toilet option is a compost toilet.  This is the option that I personally like the best because the waste actually gets turned into compost that you can use.

Yes, poop really does get turned into safe compost that you can use in your garden!

A simple compost toilet basically consists of a bucket which you do your business into.  For comfort, you put a specially-fitted toilet seat on top of the bucket. After each use, you put a bit of sawdust into the bucket.  When the bucket is full, you put the toilet seat on a new, clean bucket.  The bucket full of sawdust and waste goes in a composting heap.  Sprinkle some more sawdust over the waste so it stays covered while composting further.

Because pee is sterile (with the exception of some cases such as if you have a kidney infection), a lot of people prefer to use separate buckets for pee and poo.  The pee can be safely dumped in your yard.  Without pee in the poo bucket, the poo will dry out a lot faster.  There are special urine-diverting toilet seats you can get for composting toilets.

While the cheap DIY composting toilets are great, they do have their problems.  Some people have problems with flies.  If your region is very cold, then the waste might not be able to decompose.  And you’ll need a steady supply of sawdust or other carbon material to cover the waste after each use.

A more modern solution is to buy a composting toilet.  While modern composting toilets are quite pricey, they convert waste into compost much faster. They usually have vent hoses so are also odorless.

They will use a battery and/or hand crank to speed up composting.

Most importantly, you don’t have to haul buckets of human waste out to your compost heat.  So, while they are a lot pricier than the sawdust composting toilet option, it is no surprise that a lot of people living off grid choose to buy one.


Option 3: DIY septic tank

A finally solution to the sewage disposal issue is to make your own septic tank.  I’m not going to get too in detail about this here because it requires much more effort and has a higher learning curve.  You’ll not only need to learn how to install the septic tank, but how to lay out a leach field, and how to maintain the septic tank.

Since these systems require water, it doesn’t seem to make much sense when you can get a composting toilet instead.

However, many people living off grid have built their own septic tanks and are quite happy with them.  Explore the options to see what is right for your property.

Are you living off grid? We’d love to hear about it!  Join us in the Primal Survivor Facebook group for off grid talk and tips!

I’m Jacob Hunter, founder of Primal Survivor.
I believe in empowering people with the knowledge to prepare and survive in the modern world.

More about Jacob here.

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  1. Hi,
    Just to expand on the reason why solids and liquids should be separated in a compost loo. When the two are combined the breakdown process become aerobic (without air) and this results in a strong smell. By keeping the solids together and covering them with sawdust and aerobic decomposition occurs which smell less and as you say happens much faster. Also urine can be poured onto a compost heap to help with decomposition. This is better than a direct application especially with female urine as it may contain oestrogen which can burn plants.

  2. I am interested in the composting toilet but I am not interested in the compost. Is there a disposal service that I can pay to come haul the waste away? Or, is there a way to have a tank that’s emptied?

  3. Crazy idea? I have a camper that is off grid with a 50 gallon blackwater tank. I have it off grid. Where I have it composting is ok but not outhouse (no blackwater can go into the ground). I have purchased a plastic storage container – 4 x 4 x 3 feet that is lockable. I was wondering if you put the black water maybe like 20 gallons or so with a good amount of sawdust/ash in a 55 gallon contractor bag….if you put it in the container in a sealed bag would it turn to compost in a few years?

  4. Option 4: GSAP Microflush Toilet (

    The GSAP Microflush Toilet uses only 1 cup of water (from the previous user’s handwash) to flush, so it’s stingy on water. To address concerns mentioned in the article and by previous commenterss:

    1) It doesn’t use urine diversion because the liquids (1 cup water flush and the urine) rapidly and naturally separate in the digester. The liquid flows into a gravel bed soak hole. The solids are digested by micro and macro organisms.

    2) The rich compost can be harvested after 2 to 3 years (by removing the back cover of the digester and used for fertilizer or simply emptied anywhere outdoors if it’s not needed.

    3) There are no flies and no odor because the small amount of water for flushing isolates the waste in the digester from the structure/restroom space.

    Steve M.

  5. I have a wooden chalet on my land which is a forest. When I decided for health reasons to build the chalet I considered many different options for the toilet.
    On a tempory basis I used an ordinary toilet seat fixed to a wooden frame of three legs and no sides. After each use I would simply move it to a different place,with a dozen rocks set in the ground to make it level in each place.
    To be honest I didn’t like this set up but I believed it to be the best I could do and it was only tempory.
    What happened is the beuty of nature.
    Some dung beatles from I don’t know where found a constent supply of food,they have now built there headquaters somewhere on my land in the area that I use as a toilet. I should think that they have increased condiderably in numbers because of the constant food supply. Two days after feeding them they have taken every last scrap. Although I still use a dozen diffent spots I could reduce the number without any problem.
    I can’t think of any reason to not continue like this,if I were to build 3 outide toilets for exemple they would allways be empty when I use them. As for impact on the environement, I cannot see where there is a problem.
    Is there something that I have over looked and should I use another method or can I continue living in harmony with a colony of dung beatles?

    • Gut answer: This doesn’t sound like a hygienic or sustainable solution.
      Honest answer: We don’t know for sure if this is a good or sustainable solution, we have some very knowledgeable readers so drop a comment here if you have any views on this.

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